Welcome to the official site for the Pediatric Anesthesia & Neurodevelopment Assessment (PANDA) project. PANDA project is a large, multi-center study based at the Morgan Stanley Children’s Hospital of New York at Columbia University Medical Center. The project aims to examine two groups of children - those who have been exposed to anesthesia and those who have not – and assess their neurodevelopment and cognitive functions. The goal of the PANDA project is to add to the body of knowledge surrounding the important topic of the long term neurodevelopmental effects of anesthesia and surgery in infants and young children. Currently, the other sites participating in the study are Boston Children’s Hospital (Harvard University), Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (University of Pennsylvania), and Monroe Carell Children's Hospital at Vanderbilt Children’s Hospital (Vanderbilt University).